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Dietary Eritadenine and Ethanolamine Depress Fatty Acid Desaturase Activities by Increasing Liver Microsomal Phosphatidylethanolamine in Rats

Shimada, Yasuhiko, Morita, Tatsuya, Sugiyama, Kimio
Journal of nutrition 2003 v.133 no.3 pp. 758-765
Lentinula edodes, diet, ethanolamine, fatty acid composition, fatty acids, liver, liver microsomes, mushrooms, phospholipids, rats, species diversity, stearoyl-CoA desaturase
The effects of eritadenine, a constituent of the Lentinus edodes mushroom, and ethanolamine, the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), on fatty acid desaturase activities and lipid profiles were investigated comparatively in rats. Rats were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with either eritadenine (0.05 g/kg) or ethanolamine (8 g/kg) for 14 d. Eritadenine and ethanolamine had marked hypocholesterolemic effects. The concentration of liver microsomal PE was significantly increased and the ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to PE was significantly decreased by both eritadenine and ethanolamine. These changes in phospholipid profile were also observed in the mitochondria and plasma membranes in the liver. The activities of the Δ5-, Δ6- and Δ9-desaturases in liver microsomes were significantly decreased by eritadenine and ethanolamine; there was a significant correlation between the activity of Δ5- or Δ6-desaturase and the proportion of PE in the total phospholipids or the PC/PE ratio. Reflecting decreased Δ5- and Δ6-desaturase activities, the 20:4(n-6)/18:2(n-6) ratio was significantly decreased by eritadenine and ethanolamine in PC of the liver microsomes, mitochondria and plasma membranes. Although the 20:4(n-6)/18:2(n-6) ratio of liver microsomal PE was also significantly decreased by eritadenine and ethanolamine, the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine was less affected by these compounds. Eritadenine and ethanolamine increased the proportion of 16:0–18:2 and decreased the proportion of 18:0–20:4 in liver PC. The results suggest that dietary eritadenine and ethanolamine might lead to decreases in desaturase activities and changes in fatty acid and molecular species composition of PC through an increase in liver microsomal PE.