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Convergent synthesis of tetra- and penta-saccharide fragments of dimeric Lewis X

Forman, Adam, Hendel, Jenifer, Auzanneau, France-Isabelle
Carbohydrate research 2019 v.482 pp. 107730
N-acetylglucosamine, antibodies, epitopes, glucosamine, glycosylation, thiourea, trisaccharides
The convergent synthesis of tetra- and penta-saccharide fragments of the TACA dimeric Lex is described. The synthetic strategy relied on the preparation of a protected GlcNTCA-(1,3)-Gal-(1,4)-GlcNAc trisaccharide diol free at O-3 of both glucosamine residues. Key steps in the preparation of this diol involved glycosylation at O-4 of N-acetylglucosamine using activation of a trichloroacetimidate with BF3·Et2O at 40 °C, removal of the non-reducing end O-3’ chloroacetate with thiourea, and glycosylation with a N-trichloroacetamido glucosamine trichloroacetimidate donor. After conversion to the diol acceptor, the trisaccharide was selectively fucosylated at the nonreducing end under NIS/TMSOTf activation, or di-fucosylated under CuBr2/Bu4NBr activation. The protected tetra- and pentasaccharides were then efficiently deprotected under dissolving metal conditions and the nonreducing end glucosamine residues were N-acetylated during the reaction work up. The deprotected compounds will be used as soluble competitors to characterize the epitopes recognized by anti-polymeric Lex antibodies.