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X-ray absorption as an alternative method to determine the exhausting degree of activated carbon layers in water treatment system for medical services
- Puente Torres, Jeamichel, Crespo Sariol, Harold, Yperman, Jan, Adriaensens, Peter, Carleer, Robert, Mariño Peacok, Thayset, Brito Sauvanell, Ángel, Thijssen, Elsy, Reggers, Guy, Haeldermans, Tom, Samyn, Pieter
- Talanta 2019 v.205 pp. 120058
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-radiation, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, activated carbon, case studies, cleaning, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, health services, hemodialysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, radiography, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, water purification
- Analytical methods based on X-Ray radiation proved to be reliable and sensitive techniques to study activated carbons (ACs). An X-Ray absorption analysis based on digital radiographic images (XRA) is applied for the determination of the exhaustion degree of granular activated carbon (GAC) used in a water purification system for hemodialysis. XRA-method demonstrated the possibility to determine the exhaustion degree at different layers of the GAC filter. The results of the XRA-method were successfully correlated with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), TGA, Elemental analysis (EA), SEM, TD-GC/MS, ATR-FTIR, X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance relaxometry (NMR) analyses. It was demonstrated that the XRA-method is a fast and reliable analytical tool to give indirect information on the exhaustion degree of GAC at different layers. It is also demonstrated that XRA results can be correlated with the results of the other analytical techniques, rather dealing with the composition and morphology of GAC at different layers.