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Phenotypical and molecular changes induced by carbamazepine and propranolol on larval stages of Mytilus galloprovincialis
- Franzellitti, Silvia, Balbi, Teresa, Montagna, Michele, Fabbri, Rita, Valbonesi, Paola, Fabbri, Elena, Canesi, Laura
- Chemosphere 2019 v.234 pp. 962-970
- Mytilus galloprovincialis, abnormal development, antioxidants, aquatic environment, drugs, embryogenesis, embryonic mortality, embryotoxicity, genes, larvae, median effective concentration, mussels, pollution, propranolol, transcription (genetics)
- The possible impact of carbamazepine (CBZ) and propranolol (PROP), two widespread pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, were investigated on morphology and gene transcription of early larvae of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Pharmaceuticals were first tested in a wide concentration range (from 0.01 to 1000 μg/L) through the 48-hpf embryotoxicity assay. The results showed that both compounds significantly affected embryo development from environmental concentrations. Although similar EC50 were obtained, (≅ 1 μg/L) CBZ induced a progressive increase in embryo malformations, whereas PROP apparently showed greater impacts in terms of arrested development and embryo mortality at higher concentrations (>10 μg/L). Transcriptional analyses of 17 genes involved in different physiological functions in mussels and/or in their response to environmental contaminants, were performed at 24 and 48 h pf at two selected concentrations of CBZ and PROP (0.01 and 1 μg/L). Both compounds induced down-regulation of shell-specific and neuroendocrine related transcripts, while distinct effects were observed on antioxidant, lysosomal, and immune-related transcripts, also depending on the larval stage investigated. The results demonstrate that CBZ and PROP can affect development and gene transcription in mussel early larvae at environmental concentrations.