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Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with free phytosterols for food applications

Santos, Valeria da Silva, Braz, Bruno Brito, Silva, Alan Ávila, Cardoso, Lisandro Pavie, Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan, Santana, Maria Helena Andrade
Food chemistry 2019 v.298 pp. 125053
beverages, canola, crystals, food enrichment, heat tolerance, homogenization, hydrodynamics, margarine, particle size, phytosterols, sunflower oil, thermal properties, zeta potential
The objective of this study was to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with free phytosterols (FP) using conventional fats and oils. Lipid matrices (LMs) and NLCs were produced with high oleic sunflower oil, fully hydrogenated canola (CA) and crambe (CR) oils by high-pressure homogenization (HPH). The NLCs were evaluated for hydrodynamic diameter (Z-ave), polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential (ZP). The melting behavior and polymorphism were investigated for both, the LMs and NLCs. The NLCs presented particle sizes ranging from 148.23 to 342.10 nm, PDI from 0.275 to 0.481, and ZP between −22.27 and −29.70 mV. The NLCs presented higher thermal resistance than that of the LMs. The use of CA and CR separately in the NLC formulations favored the incorporation of FP. The LMs and NLCs presented crystals in β-form and in mixtures of β′ and β forms. The developed NLCs can be used for food enrichment, such as spreads, margarine, and beverages.