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Uptake of arsenic and heavy metals by native plants growing near Nui Phao multi-metal mine, northern Vietnam

Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang, Ha, Nguyen Thi, Nga, Tran Thi Huyen, Minh, Nguyen Ngoc, Anh, Bui Thi Kim, Hang, Nguyen Thi An, Duc, Nguyen Anh, Nhuan, Mai Trong, Kim, Kyoung-Woong
Applied geochemistry 2019 v.108 pp. 104368
Bidens pilosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos, Pteris vittata, agricultural soils, arsenic, biomass, cadmium, carbonates, copper, cost effectiveness, geochemistry, heavy metals, hyperaccumulators, indigenous species, iron, manganese, mining, phytoaccumulation, polluted soils, shoots, soil sampling, soil separates, tungsten, zinc, Vietnam
Phytoremediation is a plant-based, environment-friendly, and cost-effective technology that can be potentially used to remediate contaminated media. This study was conducted to evaluate the phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential, two common techniques of phytoremediation, of 21 plant species growing naturally at the largest tungsten (W) mine in Vietnam—the second largest production of W in the world. The average concentrations in different soil fractions were in the following order: residue > organically complexed, Fe- and Mn oxide-bound > carbonate bound > exchangeable. The total concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in the soil varied by 34–3390, 4.87–81.6, 14.3–2080, and 21.9–370 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Zn in the shoots ranged 0.71–2400, 0.05–5.55, 4.81–249, and 13.3–380 mg/kg-DW, respectively. The concentrations of As and Cd in all soil samples and Cu in 70% of soil samples collected around the mine fluctuated within 2–227, 3–54, and up to 21-folds higher than the maximum allowable limit for agricultural soils in Vietnam (QCVN 03-MT:2015/BTNMT). The results indicated that hyperaccumulation levels (mg/kg-DW) were obtained for only As in Pityrogramma calomelanos (2400) and Pteris vittata L. (1860). Based on the recorded hyperaccumulation levels, translocation and accumulation factors, biomass, and fast growth of these plants, P. calomelanos and P. vittata were considered to be promising native plants for the phytoextraction of As contaminated soils. Bidens pilosa L. also has great potential for phytostabilization of mining soils contaminated with As and heavy metals.