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Dietary Fish Oil Suppresses Experimental Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy in Mice

Pestka, James J., Zhou, Hui-Ren, Jia, Qunshan, Timmer, Ann M.
Journal of nutrition 2002 v.132 no.2 pp. 261-269
animal models, antigen-antibody complex, cell culture, corn oil, deoxynivalenol, diet, fish oils, glomerulonephritis, immunoglobulin A, ingestion, kidneys, menhaden, mice, patients, spleen
Dietary fish oil (FO) supplementation reportedly retards the progression of renal disease in patients with immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN), the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. Using an experimental mouse model in which early immunopathological hallmarks of IgAN are induced by the mycotoxin vomitoxin (VT), the ameliorative effects of FO ingestion on this disease were evaluated in two studies. In Study 1, the capacity of VT to induce IgAN was evaluated in mice fed for 12 wk AIN-76A diets containing 50 g/kg corn oil (CO), 50 g/kg CO plus 9 mg/kg tert butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), or 5 g/kg CO plus 45 g/kg menhaden FO that contained 200 mg/kg TBHQ. Serum IgA, serum IgA immune complexes and kidney mesangial IgA deposition were greater in mice fed VT + CO compared with the CO control group, whereas all three variables were significantly attenuated in mice fed VT + FO. Although TBHQ also had attenuating effects, these were significantly less than those for the VT + FO group. In Study 2, the effects of feeding modified AIN 93G diets containing either 70 g/kg CO or 10 g/kg CO plus 60 g/kg FO for 20 wk on VT-induced IgAN were compared. Again, consumption of FO attenuated all three immunopathological variables. In addition, spleen cell cultures from the VT + FO group produced markedly less IgA than those cultures from mice fed VT + CO. Taken together, the results suggested that diets containing FO may impair early immunopathogenesis in VT-induced IgAN and that this was not totally dependent on the presence of the antioxidant TBHQ.