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Peroxisome Plasticity at the Virus–Host Interface

Cook, Katelyn C., Moreno, Jorge A., Jean Beltran, Pierre M., Cristea, Ileana M.
Trends in microbiology 2019 v.27 no.11 pp. 906-914
biogenesis, coevolution, cytotoxicity, host-pathogen relationships, humans, metabolism, peroxisomes, virus replication, viruses
Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles with roles in cellular metabolism, cytotoxicity, and signaling. The plastic nature of these organelles allows them to respond to diverse biological processes, such as virus infections, by remodeling their biogenesis, morphology, and composition to enhance specific functions. During virus infections in humans, peroxisomes act as important immune signaling organelles, aiding the host by orchestrating antiviral signaling. However, more recently it was discovered that peroxisomes can also benefit the virus, facilitating virus–host interactions that rewire peroxisomes to support cellular processes for virus replication and spread. Here, we describe recent studies that uncovered this double-edged character of peroxisomes during infection, highlighting mechanisms that viruses have coevolved to take advantage of peroxisome plasticity. We also provide a perspective for future studies by comparing the established roles of peroxisomes in plant infections and discussing the promise of virology studies as a venue to reveal the uncharted biology of peroxisomes.