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Bacterial osteomyelitis in veterinary orthopaedics: Pathophysiology, clinical presentation and advances in treatment across multiple species

Gieling, Fabian, Peters, Sarah, Erichsen, Christoph, Richards, R. Geoff, Zeiter, Stephan, Moriarty, T. Fintan
The veterinary journal 2019 v.250 pp. 44-54
Camelidae, bacterial infections, bone resorption, cats, cattle, dogs, etiological agents, horses, orthopedics, osteomyelitis, pathophysiology, patients, therapeutics
Bacterial osteomyelitis in veterinary patients can be challenging to diagnose and treat, given limited therapeutic options and reported success rates. Osteomyelitis is frequently associated with surgical implant devices, including those required to optimise stability and healing of fractures. However, management of osteomyelitis sometimes necessitates the removal of these surgical implant devices in order to eradicate infection or limit implant-related osteolysis. The goal of this article is to provide a general and species-specific review of bacterial osteomyelitis in a selection of domestic veterinary species, including cats, dogs, horses, cattle and camelids, with a focus on classification, clinical presentation, aetiologic agents, and common therapeutic interventions reported in the literature. New treatment options emerging from research and human medicine will be also discussed, as they also apply to current or future care of veterinary patients with osteomyelitis.