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Variability for Sennoside A and B concentrations in eight Senna species

J. Bradley Morris, Brandon D. Tonnis, Ming Li Wang
Industrial crops and products 2019 v.139 pp. 111489
Senna alata, Senna alexandrina, Senna hirsuta, Senna occidentalis, diodes, high performance liquid chromatography, leaves, medicinal plants, pods, purgative properties
Some Senna species are important medicinal plants used worldwide and may show variation for sennoside concentrations. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU (United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit) curates several Senna species including candlebush [S. alata (L.) Roxb.], Alexandrian senna [S. alexandrina Mill.], S. angulata (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, S. covesii (A. Gray) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, S. hirsuta var. hirta H.S. Irwin & Barneby, S. hirsuta var. leptocarpa (Benth.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, S. occidentalis (L.) Link, and S. uniflora (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby. The natural products including sennoside A and B are the primary laxative ingredients in many medicinal products. However, it is unknown if sennoside A and B are found in many of these Senna species and at what concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate sennoside A and B content from leaves of 14 and pods of four accessions including eight Senna species over two years and locations. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) on an Agilent 1100 with an auto-sampler and diode array detector. Significant accession and location x accession effects were observed for sennoside A and B. Mean separations revealed that leaves from S. alata produced significantly more sennoside A (8.55 mg/g) than all other species. However, immature pods from S. alexandrina produced the significantly highest sennoside B (16.19 mg/g) content. While this is a preliminary analysis, it provides evidence for higher levels of sennoside A and B in S. alata and S. alexandrina than in S. angulata, S. covesii, S. hirsuta var. hirta, S. hirsuta var. leptocarpa, S. occidentalis, and S. uniflora. These results show that both S. alata and S. alexandrina produced the highest sennoside concentrations. However, additional studies are required to verify sennoside content in other Senna species and organs including Senna pods.