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Comparison of Five Endogenous Reference Genes for Specific PCR Detection and Quantification of Rice

Xiujie, Zhang, Wujun, Jin, Wentao, Xu, Xiaying, Li, Ying, Shang, Sha, Li, Hongsheng, Ouyang
Rice science 2019 v.26 no.4 pp. 248-256
Arabidopsis, beets, corn, detection limit, genes, ingredients, oats, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, phospholipase D, potatoes, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rice, sucrose-phosphate synthase, tobacco, transgenic plants
Endogenous reference genes (ERGs) provide vital information regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The successful detection of ERGs can identity GMOs and the source of genes, verify stability and reliability of the detection system, and calculate the level of genetically modified (GM) ingredients in mixtures. The reported ERGs in rice include sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), phospholipase D (PLD), RBE4 and rice root-specific GOS9 genes. Based on the characteristics of ERGs, a new ERG gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), was selected, and further compared with the four existing genes. A total of 18 rice varieties and 29 non-rice crops were used to verify the interspecies specificity, intraspecies consistency, sensitivity, stability and reliability of these five ERGs using qualitative and quantitative PCR. Qualitative detection indicated that SPS and PEPC displayed sufficient specificity, and the detection sensitivity was 0.05% and 0.005%, respectively. Although the specificity of both RBE4 and GOS9 were adequate, the amplicons were small and easily confused with primer dimers. Non-specific amplification of the PLD gene was present in maize and potato. Real-time quantitative PCR detection indicated that PLD, SPS and PEPC displayed good specificity, with R2 of the standard curve greater than 0.98, while the amplification efficiency ranged between 90% and 110%. Both the detection sensitivities of PLD and PEPC were five copies and that of SPS was ten copies. RBE4 showed typical amplification in maize, beet and Arabidopsis, while GOS9 was found in maize, tobacco and oats. PEPC exhibited excellent detection sensitivity and species specificity, which made it a potentially useful application in GM-rice supervision and administration. Additionally, SPS and PLD are also suitable for GM-rice detection. This study effectively established a foundation for GMO detection, which not only provides vital technical support for GMO identification, but also is of great significance for enhancing the comparability of detection results, and the standardization of ERG testing in GM-rice.