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Resistance to ETEC F4/F18–mediated piglet diarrhoea: opening the gene black box

Sinha, Rebeka, Sahoo, Nihar Ranjan, Shrivastava, Kush, Kumar, Pushpendra, Qureshi, Salauddin, De, Ujjwal Kumar, Kumar, Amit, Kumar, Gandham Venkata Papa Pydi Siva Ravi, Bhushan, Bharat
Tropical animal health and production 2019 v.51 no.6 pp. 1307-1320
Sus scrofa, antigens, bacterial adhesion, diarrhea, enterocytes, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, fimbriae, gene expression regulation, genes, industry, loci, mucins, phenotype, piglets, rearing, receptors, single nucleotide polymorphism, toxins, transferases
Diarrhoea, a significant problem in pig rearing industry affecting pre- and post-weaning piglets is caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The ETEC are classified as per the fimbriae types which are responsible for bacterial attachment with enterocytes and release of toxins causing diarrhoea. However, genetic difference exists for susceptibility to ETEC infection in piglets. The different phenotypes found in pigs determine their (pigs’) susceptibility or resistance towards fimbrial subtypes/variants (F4ab, F4ac, F4ad and F18). Specific receptors are present on intestinal epithelium for attachment of these fimbriae, which do not express to same level in all animals. This differential expression is genetically determined and thus their genetic causes (may be putative candidate gene or mutations) render some animals resistant or susceptible to one or more fimbrial subtypes. Genetic linkage studies have revealed the mapping location of the receptor loci for the two most frequent variants F4ab and F4ac to SSC13q41 (i.e. q arm of 13th chromosome of Sus scrofa). Some SNPs have been identified in mucin gene family, transferring receptor gene, fucosyltransferase 1 gene and swine leucocyte antigen locus that are proposed to be linked mutations for resistance/susceptibility towards ETEC diarrhoea. However, owing to the variety of fimbrial types and subtypes, it would be difficult to identify a single causative mutation and the candidate loci may involve more number of genes/regions. In this review, we focus on the genetic mutations in genes involved in imparting resistance/susceptibility to F4 or F18 ETEC diarrhoea and possibilities to use them as marker for selection against susceptible animals.