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OsZIP1 functions as a metal efflux transporter limiting excess zinc, copper and cadmium accumulation in rice

Liu, Xue Song, Feng, Sheng Jun, Zhang, Bai Qing, Wang, Meng Qi, Cao, Hong Wei, Rono, Justice Kipkoir, Chen, Xi, Yang, Zhi Min
BMC plant biology 2019 v.19 no.1 pp. 283
DNA methylation, Oryza sativa, RNA interference, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cadmium, copper, endoplasmic reticulum, epigenetics, gene overexpression, histones, homeostasis, iron, leaves, loci, longevity, manganese, mutants, phenotype, plant growth, plasma membrane, protoplasts, rice, roots, tobacco, transcription (genetics), transgenic plants, transporters, yeasts, zinc
BACKGROUND: Metal homeostasis is critical for plant growth, development and adaptation to environmental stresses and largely governed by a variety of metal transporters. The plant ZIP (Zn-regulated transporter, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein) family proteins belong to the integral membrane transporters responsible for uptake and allocation of essential and non-essential metals. However, whether the ZIP family members mediate metal efflux and its regulatory mechanism remains unknown. RESULTS: In this report, we provided evidence that OsZIP1 is a metal-detoxified transporter through preventing excess Zn, Cu and Cd accumulation in rice. OsZIP1 is abundantly expressed in roots throughout the life span and sufficiently induced by excess Zn, Cu and Cd but not by Mn and Fe at transcriptional and translational levels. Expression of OsZIP-GFP fusion in rice protoplasts and tobacco leaves shows that OsZIP1 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM). The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) complementation test shows that expression of OsZIP1 reduced Zn accumulation. Transgenic rice overexpressing OsZIP1 grew better under excess metal stress but accumulated less of the metals in plants. In contrast, both oszip1 mutant and RNA interference (RNAi) lines accumulated more metal in roots and contributed to metal sensitive phenotypes. These results suggest OsZIP1 is able to function as a metal exporter in rice when Zn, Cu and Cd are excess in environment. We further identified the DNA methylation of histone H3K9me2 of OsZIP1 and found that OsZIP1 locus, whose transcribed regions imbed a 242 bp sequence, is demethylated, suggesting that epigenetic modification is likely associated with OsZIP1 function under Cd stress. CONCLUSION: OsZIP1 is a transporter that is required for detoxification of excess Zn, Cu and Cd in rice.