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Adsorption of Mono- and Divalent 4-(Dimethylamino)pyridines on Gold Surfaces: Studies by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering and Density Functional Theory

Gong, Xin, Taszarek, Maurice, Schefzig, Luise, Reissig, Hans-Ulrich, Thierbach, Steffen, Wassermann, Bernhard, Graf, Christina, Mollenhauer, Doreen, Rühl, Eckart
Langmuir 2019 v.35 no.26 pp. 8667-8680
Raman spectroscopy, adsorption, binding capacity, breathing, density functional theory, gold, ligands, models, pyridines, sorption isotherms, thermodynamics
The adsorption thermodynamics of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) and its five divalent derivatives di-DMAP-n (2 ≤ n ≤ 6) with gradually increasing methylene-spacer lengths n binding to planar gold surfaces has been studied by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and density functional theory (DFT). SERS intensities of the totally symmetrical breathing mode of the pyridine ring at approximately 1007 cm–¹ are used to monitor the surface coverage of the DMAP and di-DMAP-n ligands on gold surfaces at different concentrations. The equilibrium constant as a measure of the binding affinity is obtained from these measurements by using a modified Langmuir isotherm. Due to multivalent binding to the gold substrate, a characteristic enhancement of the binding affinity of di-DMAP-n compared to the monovalent DMAP is observed for all divalent species. First principles calculations of the di-DMAP-n ligands on an ideal Au(111) surface model as well as step terrace models have been performed to understand the adsorption structures and the multivalent binding enhancements. Furthermore, Raman spectra of the adsorbed molecules have been studied by first principles calculations to correlate the binding affinities to experimentally determined adsorption constants. The joint experimental and theoretical investigation of an oscillatory behavior of the binding affinity as a function of the methylene-spacer length in mono- and divalent 4-(dimethylamino)pyridines reveals that the molecular architecture plays an important role for the structure-function interplay of multivalently bound adsorbates.