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Semi-Supervised Ground-to-Aerial Adaptation with Heterogeneous Features Learning for Scene Classification

Deng, Zhipeng, Sun, Hao, Zhou, Shilin
ISPRS international journal of geo-information 2018 v.7 no.5
algorithms, artificial intelligence, data collection, discriminant analysis, remote sensing
Currently, huge quantities of remote sensing images (RSIs) are becoming available. Nevertheless, the scarcity of labeled samples hinders the semantic understanding of RSIs. Fortunately, many ground-level image datasets with detailed semantic annotations have been collected in the vision community. In this paper, we attempt to exploit the abundant labeled ground-level images to build discriminative models for overhead-view RSI classification. However, images from the ground-level and overhead view are represented by heterogeneous features with different distributions; how to effectively combine multiple features and reduce the mismatch of distributions are two key problems in this scene-model transfer task. Specifically, a semi-supervised manifold-regularized multiple-kernel-learning (SMRMKL) algorithm is proposed for solving these problems. We employ multiple kernels over several features to learn an optimal combined model automatically. Multi-kernel Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MK-MMD) is utilized to measure the data mismatch. To make use of unlabeled target samples, a manifold regularized semi-supervised learning process is incorporated into our framework. Extensive experimental results on both cross-view and aerial-to-satellite scene datasets demonstrate that: (1) SMRMKL has an appealing extension ability to effectively fuse different types of visual features; and (2) manifold regularization can improve the adaptation performance by utilizing unlabeled target samples.