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Effects of light intensity and plant growth regulators on callus proliferation and shoot regeneration in the ornamental succulent Haworthia

Chen, Yen-Ming, Huang, Jian-Zhi, Hou, Ting-Wen, Pan, I-Chun
Botanical studies 2019 v.60 no.1 pp. 10
Haworthia, acetic acid, adventitious shoots, benzyladenine, cacti and succulents, callus, explants, genetic engineering, germplasm conservation, indole butyric acid, light intensity, micropropagation, molecular biology, naphthaleneacetic acid, organogenesis, ornamental plants, plantlets, rare species, retail marketing, rooting, roots, survival rate, tissue culture
BACKGROUND: Haworthia are desert succulents belonging to the Asphodelaceae family. Haworthia species are cultivated commercially as ornamentals and some rare species are quite valuable at retail market but growth slowly and difficult to propagation. However, an efficient micropropagation protocol was remained insufficient. RESULTS: The organogenic cultures obtained from inflorescence explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) under a light intensity of 10 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ or 45 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The highest callus proliferation index (93.15%) with 1.0 mg L⁻¹ BA + 0.1 mg L⁻¹ NAA under a light intensity of 10 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The best shoot proliferation rates were on media with either 1 mg L⁻¹ BA + 0–0.4 mg L⁻¹ NAA (65.57–81.01%) under a light intensity of 45 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The highest root length (15.57 mm) and the highest rooting frequency (17 roots per shoot) were obtained when adventitious shoots were inoculated on MS medium with 0.4 mg L⁻¹ NAA + 0.4 mg L⁻¹ IBA. The survival rate of the transplanted plantlets was about 100%. The efficient micropropagation protocol proliferated Haworthia regenerate plants from inflorescence within 11 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The present study determined the best combination of light intensity and plant growth regulators (PGRs) for improved organogenesis of Haworthia during propagation by tissue culture. This optimized protocol showed light intensity is an important factor for efficient callus or shoot regeneration. These results indicate that it will be useful to optimize the light conditions for future commercial cultivation, germplasm conservation, genetic engineering and molecular biology research of this ornamental plant.