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Effect of buffer nature and concentration on the chromatographic performance of basic compounds in the absence and presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

Peris-García, E., García-Alvarez-Coque, M.C., Carda-Broch, S., Ruiz-Angel, M.J.
Journal of chromatography 2019 v.1602 pp. 397-408
acetates, additives, buffers, citrates, formates, ionic liquids, pH, phosphates, reversed-phase liquid chromatography
In reversed-phase liquid chromatography, the performance for basic compounds is affected by the interaction of the protonated (cationic) species with the anionic free silanols on the alkyl-bonded stationary phases. Using aqueous-organic mobile phases in the absence of additives, the retention may be too high, and the peaks be broad and asymmetric. The performance is improved by addition to the mobile phase of ionic liquids, from which 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C6MIm][Cl]) has especially good characteristics. A recent report has also revealed that the use of the phosphate system as buffer, at varying concentration and pH, may have a significant role in the chromatographic performance of basic compounds, with effects on both retention and peak shape. In this work, this study has been extended to other three buffer systems (acetate, citrate, and formate), at increasing concentrations and pH 3 and 7, in the presence and absence of [C6MIm][Cl]. The results have been compared with those obtained with the phosphate system. The retention increases by addition of larger concentration of all buffers, in both absence and presence of [C6MIm][Cl]. Without additive, peak performance is also enhanced significantly. This effect is minimal in the presence of [C6MIm][Cl], which yields highly symmetrical peaks at all buffer concentrations, due to an effective blocking of the silanol activity.