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Ionic liquid-based water treatment technologies for organic pollutants: Current status and future prospects of ionic liquid mediated technologies

Isosaari, Pirjo, Srivastava, Varsha, Sillanpää, Mika
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.690 pp. 604-619
adsorbents, bisphenol A, drugs, dyes, ionic liquids, nitrophenols, pesticides, phenol, phthalates, pollutants, pollution control, toluene, toxicity, wastewater treatment, water pollution, water shortages, water solubility
Water scarcity motivated the scientific researcher to develop efficient technologies for the wastewater treatment for its reuse. Ionic liquids have been applied to many industrial and analytical separation processes, but their applications in the wastewater treatment, especially in the removal of organic pollutants, are still not well explored. Potential applications of ionic liquids include solvent extraction, solvent membrane technologies and ionic liquid-modified materials that are mainly used as adsorbents. Aforementioned technologies have been examined for the abatement of phenol, chloro- and nitrophenols, toluene, bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, dyes, and pharmaceuticals etc. Present review enlightens the application of different ionic liquids in wastewater treatment and suggests the versatility of ionic liquids in the development of rapid, effective and selective removal processes for the variety of organic pollutants. Implementation of ionic liquid based technologies for wastewater treatment have lots of challenges including the selection of non-hazardous ionic liquids, technological applications, high testing requirements for individual uses and scaling-up of the entire pollutant removal, disposal, and ionic liquid regeneration process. Toxicity assessment of water soluble ionic liquids (ILs) is the major issue due to the widespread application of ILs and hence more exposure of environment by ILs. The development of effective technologies for the recovery/treatment of wastewater contaminated with ILs is necessary from the environmental point of view. Furthermore, the cost factor is the major challenge associated with ionic liquid-based technologies.