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Effect of thermal stress on the immune responses of Chilo suppressalis walker (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Beauveria bassiana

Shamakhi, Leila, Zibaee, Arash, Karimi-Malati, Azadeh, Hoda, Hassan
Journal of thermal biology 2019 v.84 pp. 136-145
Beauveria bassiana, Chilo suppressalis, acute exposure, antimicrobial peptides, chronic exposure, enzyme activity, gene expression, genes, hemocytes, humoral immunity, immune response, immune system, insects, larvae, lysozyme, monophenol monooxygenase, rearing, temperature, thermal stress
Temperature is one of the important environmental elements affecting ecological fitness of insects through alterations in physiological systems. In the current study, a comparison was made on the cellular and humoral immune responses of the Chilo suppressalis larvae exposed to thermal stress (34 °C) and optimal rearing temperature (24 °C). Although total hemocyte count increased in the injected larvae by Beauveria bassiana, elevation of hemocyte numbers was significantly different in the larvae exposed to 34 °C for a short-time period compared to long-term exposure and control. A similar trend was observed in plasmatocyte and granulocyte counts as well as phenoloxidase activity. Gene expression of some antimicrobial peptides, including attacin1, attacin2, cecropin1, cecropin2, defensin, gallerimycin, lysozyme and prophenoloxidase-activating proteinase-3, was compared in the larvae exposed to thermal regimes and injection challenges. In all cases, expression of the target genes was relatively higher in the larvae injected by B. bassiana and short-term exposure at 34 °C. The present results confirmed that C. suppressalis could modulate the immune system in response to different thermal stress conditions mainly over a short period.