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Trichoderma/pathogen/plant interaction in pre-harvest food security

Silva, Roberto N., Monteiro, Valdirene Neves, Steindorff, Andrei Stecca, Gomes, Eriston Vieira, Noronha, Eliane Ferreira, Ulhoa, Cirano J.
Fungal biology 2019 v.123 no.8 pp. 565-583
Nematoda, Oomycetes, Trichoderma, abiotic stress, agrochemicals, antibiosis, antimicrobial peptides, bacteria, biological control, biological control agents, crop production, crops, disease resistance, ecosystems, food security, harvesting, human diseases, mycoparasites, plant diseases and disorders, plant growth, plant pathogenic fungi, plantibodies, roots
Large losses before crop harvesting are caused by plant pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, oomycetes, fungi, and nematodes. Among these, fungi are the major cause of losses in agriculture worldwide. Plant pathogens are still controlled through application of agrochemicals, causing human disease and impacting environmental and food security. Biological control provides a safe alternative for the control of fungal plant pathogens, because of the ability of biocontrol agents to establish in the ecosystem. Some Trichoderma spp. are considered potential agents in the control of fungal plant diseases. They can interact directly with roots, increasing plant growth, resistance to diseases, and tolerance to abiotic stress. Furthermore, Trichoderma can directly kill fungal plant pathogens by antibiosis, as well as via mycoparasitism strategies. In this review, we will discuss the interactions between Trichoderma/fungal pathogens/plants during the pre-harvest of crops. In addition, we will highlight how these interactions can influence crop production and food security. Finally, we will describe the future of crop production using antimicrobial peptides, plants carrying pathogen-derived resistance, and plantibodies.