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Extraction and isolation of flavonoid glycosides from Flos Sophorae Immaturus using ultrasonic‐assisted extraction followed by high‐speed countercurrent chromatography
- Xie, Zhisheng, Sun, Yongjiang, Lam, Shingchung, Zhao, Mingqian, Liang, Zhikun, Yu, Xiaoxue, Yang, Depo, Xu, Xinjun
- Journal of separation science 2014 v.37 no.8 pp. 957-965
- countercurrent chromatography, glucosides, high performance liquid chromatography, methanol, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, response surface methodology, rutin
- A method of ultrasonic‐assisted extraction followed by high‐speed countercurrent chromatography was established for the extraction and isolation of three flavonoid glycosides, i.e. rutin, narcissin, and nicotiflorin from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. The effects of ultrasonic‐assisted extraction factors for the main flavonoid compound (rutin) from Flos Sophorae Immaturus were optimized using Box–Behnken design combined with response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were determined as ultrasonic power 83% (600 W), solvent‐to‐material ratio 56:1, methanol concentration 82% v/v, and extraction time 60 min. Three bioactive flavonol glucosides, rutin, narcissin, and nicotiflorin were isolated from Flos Sophorae Immaturus using high‐speed countercurrent chromatography. The separation was performed with a two‐phase solvent system containing ethyl acetate/n‐butanol/methanol/water (4:0.9:0.2:5, v/v). Amounts of 87 mg of rutin, 10.8 mg of narcissin, and 1.8 mg of nicotiflorin were isolated from 302 mg of crude extract of Flos Sophorae Immaturus in a one‐step separation within 160 min with purities of 99.3, 98.0, and 95.1%, respectively, as determined by HPLC with diode array detection. Their structures were characterized by UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that the established method was simple, fast, and convenient, which was feasible to extract and isolate active flavonoid glycosides from Flos Sophorae Immaturus.