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Modification of nutritional properties of whole rice flours (Oryza sativa L.) by soaking, germination, and extrusion
- Albarracín, Micaela, Dyner, Luis, Giacomino, María Silvia, Weisstaub, Adriana, Zuleta, Angela, Drago, Silvina R.
- Journal of food biochemistry 2019 v.43 no.7 pp. e12854
- Oryza sativa, antinutritional factors, antioxidant activity, bioavailability, cooking, digestible protein, extrusion, fiber content, germination, hydrolysis, ingredients, inositols, lysine, nutrient content, phenolic compounds, phosphates, phytic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, rice, rice flour, soaking, whole grain foods
- Modifications of nutritional properties (amino acids, available lysine, protein digestibility, fatty acids, fiber, inositol phosphate (IPs), free and bound phenolics, and antioxidant properties) of whole rice ingredients processed by soaking, germination, and/or extrusion cooking were evaluated. Soaking and germination reduced proteins by lixiviation and hydrolysis, respectively. Lysine was the limiting amino acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids increased after germination. Protein digestibility was 100% for germinated rice, decreased to 75% after the extrusion process. Fiber content decreased around 73% after the extrusion of soaked and germinated flours. Soaking‐extrusion combined processes produces >50% IPs reduction. Germination‐extrusion produced flours with the highest antioxidant capacity (54 µmol trolox g⁻¹), which was in accordance with the highest content of free and bound phenolics (66 and 69 mg GA 100 g⁻¹, respectively). Grain treatments changed nutritional properties of flours resulting in low antinutrient whole grain ingredients, which could be used to develop whole grain‐based foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Phytic acid (PA) is an antinutrient having negative effects on mineral bioavailability and protein digestibility. There are processes such as soaking, germination, and extrusion, which alone or combined can decrease PA. However, nutritional composition and functionality of flours can change. We observed PA was highly reduced by soaking or germination combined with extrusion and antioxidant capacity and phenolic content increased in germinated and germinated‐extruded flours compared to the other treatments. These modified whole grain rice flours low in anti‐nutrients could be used in the production of expanded products or pre‐cooked ingredients to develop whole grain based foods nutritionally improved.