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l‐ carnitine and fat type in the maternal diet during gestation and lactation modify the fatty acid composition and expression of lipid metabolism‐related genes in piglets

Shi, Baoming, Zhao, Xuan, Wang, Chuanqi, Wang, Na, Tian, Meili, Shan, Anshan
Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 2019 v.103 no.4 pp. 1207-1217
acetyl-CoA carboxylase, carnitine, diet, fatty acid composition, fatty-acid synthase, fish oils, gene expression, genes, lactation, maternal nutrition, omega-3 fatty acids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, piglets, polyunsaturated fatty acids, pregnancy, sow milk, sows, soybean oil, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, sterols, subcutaneous fat, tissues
This study examined the influence of adding different amounts of maternal dietary l‐carnitine and two fat types on fatty acid (FA) composition and the expression of lipid metabolism‐related genes in piglets. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial with two fat types (3.5% soyabean oil, SO, and 3.5% fish oil, FO) and two levels of l‐carnitine (0 and 100 mg/kg) added to the sows' diets. A higher proportion of n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a lower ratio of n‐6/n‐3 PUFA in sow milk and piglet tissues were observed in the FO groups than in the SO groups. Adding l‐carnitine increased the proportion of C16:1 in sow milk and decreased n‐3 PUFA in piglet subcutaneous fat. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor α (PPAR‐α) was more abundantly expressed in piglets from the FO groups than from the SO groups (p < 0.05), whereas stearoyl‐CoA‐desaturase (SCD), sterol regulatory element binding protein‐1 (SREBP1) and ∆6‐desaturase (D6D) genes were less expressed in the FO groups compared with piglets from the SO groups. The expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) genes was decreased in the SO groups with l‐carnitine compared to that of the other dietary treatments. No differences among dietary treatments were observed with regard to the expression of acetyl‐CoA carboxylase (ACC). In conclusion, FO and l‐carnitine supplementation in sows affect FA composition and hepatic gene expression in piglets.