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Effect of fluensulfone and fluopyram on the mobility and infection of second‐stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica

Oka, Yuji, Saroya, Yonatan
Pest management science 2019 v.75 no.8 pp. 2095-2106
Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, fluopyram, galls, gels, in vitro studies, juveniles, lethal concentration 50, mechanism of action, nematicidal properties, nematicides, root tips
BACKGROUND: Fluensulfone and fluopyram are new nematicides whose mode of action is not fully understood. Differences in the nematicidal activity of these compounds among two Meloidogyne incognita populations and a Meloidogyne javanica population, and the effect of sublethal exposure to the nematicide on their infection process were studied in vitro. RESULTS: The M. incognita populations were more sensitive to fluensulfone than M. javanica, whereas M. javanica was more sensitive to fluopyram. A more than 10‐fold difference in median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was observed between the M. incognita populations after 17‐h exposure to fluensulfone. Exposure of M. incognita and M. javanica to 4 mg L⁻¹ fluopyram for 48 h resulted in irreversible immobilization, whereas lower concentrations or 17‐h exposure to fluopyram caused reversible immobilization. Pre‐exposure of M. javanica to fluensulfone at sublethal concentrations reduced the number of juveniles attracted to root tips and caused smaller galls. Pre‐exposure to fluopyram delayed the nematodes' attraction. Presence of fluopyram in a Pluronic gel at concentrations that immobilized the nematodes in water showed no or only slight inhibition of the nematodes' attraction to root tips and gall formation. CONCLUSION: Different sensitivities to nematicides were observed among Meloidogyne species and populations. Sublethal exposure to fluensulfone reduced nematode attraction to root tips and infection. Pluronic gel negatively affected nematicidal activity, especially for fluopyram. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry