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A single nucleotide variant in the promoter region of the CCR5 gene increases susceptibility to arthritis encephalitis virus in goats

Colussi, Silvia, Desiato, Rosanna, Beltramo, Chiara, Peletto, Simone, Modesto, Paola, Maniaci, Maria Grazia, Campia, Valentina, Quasso, Antonio, Rosati, Sergio, Bertolotti, Luigi, Ru, Giuseppe, Acutis, Pier Luigi
BMC veterinary research 2019 v.15 no.1 pp. 230
CCR5 receptor, Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Visna maedi virus, animal welfare, arthritis, chemokines, control methods, cross-sectional studies, encephalitis, genes, genetic variation, goats, herds, human diseases, humans, immunosuppression, mutation, promoter regions, risk, sheep, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), transcription (genetics), viruses
BACKGROUND: The small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are a heterogeneous group of viruses that includes caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV). SRLVs affect the production and welfare of sheep and goats worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment. Their high mutation rate precludes vaccine development, making innovative control measures necessary. A variant of the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) gene is reportedly involved in resistance to human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in humans and to SRLV in sheep. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic structure and variability of the CCR5 gene in goats and to carry out a cross-sectional study to investigate the role of CCR5 genetic variants in controlling susceptibility/resistance to CAEV. RESULTS: The variant g.1059 T located in the promoter region revealed an interesting association with high proviral loads (a 2.8-fold increased risk). A possible explanation could be an alteration of the transcriptional level. Overexpression of the CCR5 receptor on the cell surface may increase virus internalization and proviral load as a consequence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could be advantageously used to reduce the susceptibility of goat herds to CAEV by negatively selecting animals carrying the g.1059 T mutation. Eliminating animals predisposed to high proviral loads could also limit the development of clinical signs and the spread of the virus, since these animals are also highly efficient in shedding the virus.