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Effects of Supplementation with the Fat-Soluble Vitamins E and D on Fasting Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
- Joris, Peter J., Mensink, Ronald P.
- Nutrients 2015 v.7 no.3 pp. 1728-1743
- adults, cardiovascular diseases, carotenoids, dose response, fasting, meta-analysis, nutrition risk assessment, randomized clinical trials, vasodilation, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin supplements
- The effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplements on fasting flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, a validated marker to assess CVD risk. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by a systematic search till July 2014. Seven RCTs studying the effects of vitamin E supplements (range: 300 to 1800 IU per day) and nine RCTs examining the effects of vitamin D supplements, that involved, respectively, 303 and 658 adults, were included. No studies with carotenoid or vitamin K supplements were found. Vitamin E supplementation increased FMD vs. control by 2.42% (95% CI: 0.46% to 4.37%; p = 0.015). No effects of vitamin D supplementation were found (0.15%; 95% CI: −0.21% to 0.51%; p = 0.41). These effects did not depend on subject characteristics, treatment characteristics or technical aspects of the FMD measurement. However, no dose-response relationship was evident for vitamin E, statistical significance depended on one study, while the levels of supplement were far above recommended intakes. The current meta-analysis, therefore, does not provide unambiguous evidence to support the use of fat-soluble vitamin supplements to improve fasting FMD in adults.