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Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications
- Adebiyi, Oluwafeyisetan O., Adebiyi, Olubunmi A., Owira, Peter M. O.
- Nutrients 2015 v.7 no.12 pp. 10352-10368
- HIV infections, Human immunodeficiency virus 1, RNA-directed DNA polymerase, adiposity, apoptosis, body weight, cholesterol, enzyme inhibitors, high density lipoprotein, hyperlipidemia, laboratory animals, liver, naringin, nucleosides, oxidative stress, protein synthesis, rats, therapeutics, triacylglycerols, vitamin E, weight loss
- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7) were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT) (groups I, II III), 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T) (groups IV, V, VI) and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII). Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy.