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Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document

Marangoni, Franca, Cetin, Irene, Verduci, Elvira, Canzone, Giuseppe, Giovannini, Marcello, Scollo, Paolo, Corsello, Giovanni, Poli, Andrea
Nutrients 2016 v.8 no.10
adolescents, breast feeding, calcium, developed countries, diet, docosahexaenoic acid, eating habits, folic acid, iodine, iron, lactation, lifestyle, maternal nutrition, mothers, nutrient requirements, overweight, pregnancy outcome, progeny, underweight, vitamin D, women
The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population. Moreover, the risk of not reaching the adequate nutrient supply is increased for selected groups of women of childbearing age: those following exclusion diets, underweight or overweight/obese, smokers, adolescents, mothers who have had multiple or close pregnancies, and those with previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes.