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Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

Lu, Hsueh-Kuan, Chiang, Li-Ming, Chen, Yu-Yawn, Chuang, Chih-Lin, Chen, Kuen-Tsann, Dwyer, Gregory B., Hsu, Ying-Lin, Chen, Chun-Hao, Hsieh, Kuen-Chang
Nutrients 2016 v.8 no.10
X-ray absorption spectroscopy, bioelectrical impedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, equations, females, lean body mass, males, men, models, regression analysis, women
This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFM<inf>DXA</inf>) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFM<inf>DXA</inf> reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMm<inf>HH</inf> = 0.537 h2/Z<inf>HH</inf> − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMm<inf>HH</inf> and FFM<inf>DXA</inf> were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMm<inf>HF</inf>) and FFM<inf>DXA</inf> were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMF<inf>HH</inf> = 0.615 h2/Z<inf>HH</inf> − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMF<inf>HH</inf> and FFM<inf>DXA</inf>) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFM<inf>HF</inf> and FFM<inf>DXA</inf> were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM.