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Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Bitter Melon Seed Oil-Corrected Lipid Disorders and Conversion of α-Eleostearic Acid into Rumenic Acid in C57BL/6J Mice
- Chang, Ya-Yuan, Su, Hui-Min, Chen, Szu-Han, Hsieh, Wen-Tsong, Chyuan, Jong-Ho, Chao, Pei-Min
- Nutrients 2016 v.8 no.12
- AMP-activated protein kinase, Momordica charantia, acyl-CoA oxidase, anti-obesity agents, apoptosis, autophagy, body fat, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, conjugated linoleic acid, enzyme activity, gene expression regulation, genotype, high fat diet, inflammation, melon seed oil, metabolism, mice, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, protein content, signal transduction, soybean oil, triacylglycerols, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase, vitamin A, white adipose tissue
- We previously reported that bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) was an effective anti-steatosis and antiobesity agent. Since the major fatty acid α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) in BMSO is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator, the objective was to investigate the role of PPARα in BMSO-modulated lipid disorders and α-ESA metabolism. C57BL/6J wild (WD) and PPARα knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet containing BMSO (15% soybean oil + 15% BMSO, HB) or not (30% soybean oil, HS) for 5 weeks. The HB diet significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride concentrations and increased acyl-CoA oxidase activity in WD, but not in KO mice. However, regardless of genotype, body fat percentage was lowered along with upregulated protein levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and tyrosine hydroxylase, as well as signaling pathway of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the white adipose tissue of HB-treated groups compared to HS cohorts. In WD-HB and KO-HB groups, white adipose tissue had autophagy, apoptosis, inflammation, and browning characteristics. Without PPARα, in vivo reduction of α-ESA into rumenic acid was slightly but significantly lowered, along with remarkable reduction of hepatic retinol saturase (RetSat) expression. We concluded that BMSO-mediated anti-steatosis depended on PPARα, whereas the anti-adiposity effect was PPARα-independent. In addition, PPARα-dependent enzymes may participate in α-ESA conversion, but only have a minor role.