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Factors Associated with Decreased Lean Tissue Index in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Wang, Yi-Wen, Lin, Ting-Yun, Peng, Ching-Hsiu, Huang, Jui-Lin, Hung, Szu-Chun
Nutrients 2017 v.9 no.5
bioelectrical impedance, body composition, cardiovascular diseases, creatinine, cross-sectional studies, diabetes mellitus, dialysis, hemoglobin, interleukin-6, kidney diseases, morbidity, mortality, muscle tissues, muscular atrophy, patients, regression analysis, serum albumin, spectroscopy, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, urine
Muscle wasting is common and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, factors associated with decreased muscle mass in CKD patients are seldom reported. We performed a cross-sectional study of 326 patients (age 65.8 ± 13.3 years) with stage 3–5 CKD who were not yet on dialysis. Muscle mass was determined using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM), a multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy device, and was expressed as the lean tissue index (LTI, lean tissue mass/height2). An LTI of less than 10% of the normal value (low LTI) indicates muscle wasting. Patients with low LTI (n = 40) tended to be diabetic, had significantly higher fat tissue index, urine protein creatinine ratio, and interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, but had significantly lower serum albumin and hemoglobin levels compared with those with normal LTI. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age, sex, cardiovascular disease, and interleukin-6 were independently associated with LTI. Additionally, diabetes mellitus remained an independent predictor of muscle wasting according to low LTI by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We conclude that LTI has important clinical correlations. Determination of LTI may aid in clinical assessment by helping to identify muscle wasting among patients with stage 3–5 CKD.