U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Sustainable Fish and Invertebrate Meals for Methionine and Protein Feeds in Organic Poultry Production

A.C. Fanatico, K. Arsi, I. Upadhyaya, J. Morales Ramos, D. Donoghue, A.M. Donoghue
Journal of applied poultry research 2018 v.27 no.4 pp. 437-448
Hermetia illucens, biogeochemical cycles, byproducts, carp, ecosystems, edible insects, essential amino acids, feeding methods, feeds, fish meal, food waste, harvesting, indigenous species, insect larvae, invertebrates, methionine, organic production, poultry, poultry feeding, poultry production, United States
Organic poultry production is based on ecological processes, such as nutrient cycling, and reduces the use of synthetic inputs. High-quality protein feeds are needed to provide essential amino acids for poultry, particularly methionine. Although synthetic methionine is currently allowed in poultry feeding in the US organic program, sources that are natural are needed. Fishmeal is a high-quality protein and contains methionine; however, fishmeal sources are limited and may not be sustainable or local. A possible source of fishmeal in the USA is Asian carp fishmeal. Asian carp have invaded the Mississippi river basin with negative impacts on native fish and riparian ecosystems, and harvesting the carp may be a management strategy to help control it. Additional options for high-quality protein feeds include invertebrate meals from mass insect production, such as black soldier fly larvae, and worms. These can be raised sustainably for poultry feed by using crop by-products, residues, or recycled food to reduce food waste. Alternative feeding methods may be helpful to utilize these innovative feeds. Alternative protein feeds can contribute to ecological poultry production and have an important role under certified organic standards.