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Feeding a Mixture of Choline Forms during Lactation Improves Offspring Growth and Maternal Lymphocyte Response to Ex Vivo Immune Challenges
- Lewis, Erin D., Richard, Caroline, Goruk, Susan, Wadge, Emily, Curtis, Jonathan M., Jacobs, René L., Field, Catherine J.
- Nutrients 2017 v.9 no.7
- B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, body weight, choline, concanavalin A, cytotoxicity, dendritic cells, diet, immune response, interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, laboratory animals, lactation, lipopolysaccharides, phenotype, phosphatidylcholines, progeny, pups, rats, spleen, splenocytes
- Study objectives were to examine the impact of feeding a mixture of choline forms, or a diet high in glycerophosphocholine (GPC) on maternal immune function and offspring growth during lactation. Lactating Sprague-Dawley rat dams (n = 6/diet) were randomized to one of three diets, providing 1 g/kg total choline: Control (100% free choline (FC)), Mixed Choline (MC; 50% phosphatidylcholine (PC), 25% FC, 25% GPC), or High GPC (HGPC; 75% GPC, 12.5% PC, 12.5% FC). At 3 weeks, cell phenotypes and cytokine production with Concanavalin A (ConA)-or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocytes and mesenteric lymphocytes were measured. Feeding MC or HGPC diets improved pups’ growth compared to Control (+22% body weight, p < 0.05). In spleen, MC-and HGPC-fed dams had higher proportions of cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells expressing CD27, CD71 and CD127, total B cells (CD45RA+) and dendritic cells (OX6+OX62+), and produced less IL-6 and IFN-γ after ConA than Control-fed dams (p < 0.05). MC and HGPC LPS-stimulated splenocytes produced less IL-1β and IL-6 than Control. ConA-stimulated mesenteric lymphocytes from MC and HGPC dams produced more IL-2 and IFN-γ than Control (p < 0.05). In summary, feeding a mixture of choline forms during lactation improved offspring growth and resulted in a more efficient maternal immune response following mitogenic immune challenge.