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Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation
- Gridneva, Zoya, Rea, Alethea, Hepworth, Anna R., Ward, Leigh C., Lai, Ching T., Hartmann, Peter E., Geddes, Donna T.
- Nutrients 2018 v.10 no.1
- adiposity, appetite, bioelectrical impedance, body mass index, breast feeding, feeding frequency, feeding patterns, infants, lactation, lean body mass, milk consumption, mothers, spectroscopy, ultrasonics
- Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (US; infants only) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants and mothers). 24-h milk intake (MI) and feeding frequency (FFQ) were measured. Higher FFQ was associated with larger 24-h MI (p ≤ 0.003). Higher 24-h MI was associated with larger infant fat mass (FM) (US: p ≤ 0.002), greater percentage FM (US: p ≤ 0.008), greater FM index (FMI) (US: p ≤ 0.001) and lower fat-free mass index (FFMI) (US: p = 0.015). Lower FFQ was associated with both larger FFM (US: p ≤ 0.001) and FFMI (US: p < 0.001). Greater maternal adiposity was associated with smaller infant FFM measured with US (BMI: p < 0.010; %FM: p = 0.004; FMI: p < 0.011). Maternal BC was not associated with FFQ or 24-h MI. These results reinforce that early life is a critical window for infant programming and that breastfeeding may influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC.