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Effects of Different Dietary and Lifestyle Modification Therapies on Metabolic Syndrome in Prediabetic Arab Patients: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study

Alfawaz, Hanan A., Wani, Kaiser, Alnaami, Abdullah M., Al-Saleh, Yousef, Aljohani, Naji J., Al-Attas, Omar S., Alokail, Majed S., Kumar, Sudhesh, Al-Daghri, Nasser M.
Nutrients 2018 v.10 no.3
adults, diabetes, diet, education, fasting, glucose, lifestyle, longitudinal studies, metabolic syndrome, metformin, patients, physical activity
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/L) were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group. Anthropometric and biochemical estimations were measured. Full MetS (primary endpoint) and its components (secondary endpoint) were screened at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Full MetS in the ILMP group decreased by 26% (p < 0.001); in GA + Met group by 22.4% (p = 0.01) and in GA group by 8.2% (p = 0.28). The number of MetS components decreased significantly in the ILMP and GA + Met groups (mean change 0.81, p < 0.001 and 0.35, p = 0.05, respectively). Between-group comparison revealed a clinically significant decrease in MetS components in favor of the ILMP group (−0.58 (−0.88–0.28), p < 0.001). This study highlights the clinical potency of ILMP versus other diabetes prevention options in reducing MetS in Saudi adults with elevated fasting glucose.