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Beneficial Effect of Jojoba Seed Extracts on Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in RINm5f Beta Cells

Belhadj, Sahla, Hentati, Olfa, Hamdaoui, Ghaith, Fakhreddine, Khaskhoussi, Maillard, Elisa, Dal, Stéphanie, Sigrist, Séverine
Nutrients 2018 v.10 no.3
antioxidant activity, caspase-3, cell viability, diabetes, fructose, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, jojoba, oxidative stress, polyphenols, reactive oxygen species, seed extracts, signal transduction, simmondsin
Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (−48%, p < 0.001) and disruption of insulin secretion (p < 0.001) associated with of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a modulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant signaling pathway. Cell pre-treatments with extracts considerably increased cell viability (+86% p < 0.001) for simmondsin and +74% (p < 0.001) for aqueous extract and insulin secretion. The extracts also markedly decreased ROS (−69% (p < 0.001) for simmondsin and −59% (p < 0.001) for aqueous extract) and caspase-3 activation and improved antioxidant defense, inhibiting p22phox and increasing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) levels (+70%, p < 0.001) for aqueous extract. Simmondsin had no impact on Nrf2 levels. The richness and diversity of molecules present in jojoba seed extract makes jojoba a powerful agent to prevent the destruction of RINm5f beta cells induced by hyperglycemia.