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Beneficial Effect of Jojoba Seed Extracts on Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in RINm5f Beta Cells
- Belhadj, Sahla, Hentati, Olfa, Hamdaoui, Ghaith, Fakhreddine, Khaskhoussi, Maillard, Elisa, Dal, Stéphanie, Sigrist, Séverine
- Nutrients 2018 v.10 no.3
- antioxidant activity, caspase-3, cell viability, diabetes, fructose, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, jojoba, oxidative stress, polyphenols, reactive oxygen species, seed extracts, signal transduction, simmondsin
- Hyperglycemia occurs during diabetes and insulin resistance. It causes oxidative stress by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, leading to cellular damage. Polyphenols play a central role in defense against oxidative stress. In our study, we investigated the antioxidant properties of simmondsin, a pure molecule present in jojoba seeds, and of the aqueous extract of jojoba seeds on fructose-induced oxidative stress in RINm5f beta cells. The exposure of RINm5f beta cells to fructose triggered the loss of cell viability (−48%, p < 0.001) and disruption of insulin secretion (p < 0.001) associated with of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and a modulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant signaling pathway. Cell pre-treatments with extracts considerably increased cell viability (+86% p < 0.001) for simmondsin and +74% (p < 0.001) for aqueous extract and insulin secretion. The extracts also markedly decreased ROS (−69% (p < 0.001) for simmondsin and −59% (p < 0.001) for aqueous extract) and caspase-3 activation and improved antioxidant defense, inhibiting p22phox and increasing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) levels (+70%, p < 0.001) for aqueous extract. Simmondsin had no impact on Nrf2 levels. The richness and diversity of molecules present in jojoba seed extract makes jojoba a powerful agent to prevent the destruction of RINm5f beta cells induced by hyperglycemia.