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Main Sources, Socio-Demographic and Anthropometric Correlates of Salt Intake in Austria

Hasenegger, Verena, Rust, Petra, König, Jürgen, Purtscher, Anna Elisabeth, Erler, Judith, Ekmekcioglu, Cem
Nutrients 2018 v.10 no.3
adults, blood pressure, body mass index, dairy products, educational status, females, food industry, food intake, grains, males, meat, physical activity, processed foods, public health, questionnaires, smoking (habit), sociodemographic characteristics, table salt, Austria
Excessive salt intake is known to increase blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, salt intake exceeds the recommendations in most countries. To face this problem, it is important to identify high consumers as well as the main contributors of salt intake. Overall, data of 2018 adults between 18 and 64 years were analysed to determine the main sources, socio-demographic and anthropometric correlates of salt intake. Dietary intake was assessed from 24-h-recalls, information on socio-demographic characteristics was obtained using a questionnaire and anthropometric data were measured. Salt intake was significantly higher in males than in females. There was a significant positive association between salt intake and body mass index. No significant differences in salt intake were observed for other variables including affluence, educational level, smoking status and physical activity. The main contributor to salt intake were condiments including table salt (32.6%), followed by cereals and cereal products (27.0%), meat and meat products (16.1%) and dairy products (14.0%). These results highlight that specific population groups need to be targeted by public health initiatives and that a reduction in salt intake can only be achieved in tandem with the food producers by the reduction of salt in processed foods.