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The Dietary Intervention of Transgenic Low-Gliadin Wheat Bread in Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) Showed No Differences with Gluten Free Diet (GFD) but Provides Better Gut Microbiota Profile

Haro, Carmen, Villatoro, Myriam, Vaquero, Luis, Pastor, Jorge, Giménez, María J., Ozuna, Carmen V., Sánchez-León, Susana, García-Molina, María D., Segura, Verónica, Comino, Isabel, Sousa, Carolina, Vivas, Santiago, Landa, Blanca B., Barro, Francisco
Nutrients 2018 v.10 no.12
Bacteroides, Collinsella, Coprococcus, DNA, Oscillospira, Roseburia, bacteria, diet, digestibility, feces, gastrointestinal system, genes, gluten, gluten-free bread, intestinal microorganisms, microbial ecology, nutritional intervention, patients, peptides, permeability, questionnaires, ribosomal RNA, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), transgenic plants, wheat
The study evaluated the symptoms, acceptance, and digestibility of bread made from transgenic low-gliadin wheat, in comparison with gluten free bread, in Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) patients, considering clinical/sensory parameters and gut microbiota composition. This study was performed in two phases of seven days each, comprising a basal phase with gluten free bread and an E82 phase with low-gliadin bread. Gastrointestinal clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaire, and stool samples were collected for gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) determination and the extraction of gut microbial DNA. For the basal and E82 phases, seven and five patients, respectively, showed undetectable GIPs content. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 hypervariable regions were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform and downstream analysis was done using a Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline. No significant differences in the GSRS questionnaires were observed between the two phases. However, we observed a significantly lower abundance of some gut genera Oscillospira, Dorea, Blautia, Bacteroides, Coprococcus, and Collinsella, and a significantly higher abundance of Roseburia and Faecalibacterium genera during the E82 phase compared with the basal phase. The consumption of low-gliadin bread E82 by NCGS subjects induced potentially positive changes in the gut microbiota composition, increasing the butyrate-producing bacteria and favoring a microbial profile that is suggested to have a key role in the maintenance or improvement of gut permeability.