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Gut Microbiota and Endothelial Dysfunction Markers in Obese Mexican Children and Adolescents

Nirmalkar, Khemlal, Murugesan, Selvasankar, Pizano-Zárate, María Luisa, Villalobos-Flores, Loan Edel, García-González, Cristina, Morales-Hernández, Rosa María, Nuñez-Hernández, Jorge Arturo, Hernández-Quiroz, Fernando, Romero-Figueroa, María del Socorro, Hernández-Guerrero, César, Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos, García-Mena, Jaime
Nutrients 2018 v.10 no.12
Bacteroides, C-reactive protein, Collinsella, Lactobacillus, Mexicans, Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Veillonellaceae, adiponectin, adolescents, bioactive compounds, blood sampling, childhood obesity, children, cholesterol, digestive system, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, homeostasis, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, insulin, insulin resistance, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, intestinal microorganisms, leptin, metabolic syndrome, models, multivariate analysis, ribosomal DNA, triacylglycerols, vascular cell adhesion molecules
Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by low-grade inflammation and accompanied by dyslipidemia and up-regulation of other bioactive molecules, creating a predisposition to endothelial dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. We studied the association between gut microbiota diversity and endothelial dysfunction (EDF) markers in obese Mexican children and adolescents. We examined clinical data including metabolic factors and EDF markers in blood samples. Gut bacterial diversity was characterized by high-throughput sequencing of V3-16S rDNA libraries. Triglycerides, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistant (HOMA-IR), leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and EDF marker intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were significantly higher in obese children and adolescents. Multivariate analysis showed statistically significant positive associations between vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and Veillonellaceae, and between ICAM-1 and Ruminococcus in obese children. In obese adolescents, there was a statistically significant positive association between total cholesterol and Ruminococcus, and between ICAM-1 and Bacteroides. LEfSe analysis showed that the genus Lactobacillus and family Coriobacteriaceae were enriched in children, and genera Collinsella and Prevotella were enriched in obese adolescents. Obese children and adolescents had higher levels of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that obese Mexican children and adolescents had increased levels of CRP and a reduction of adiponectin, which causes higher expression of EDF markers, affecting endothelial function and associating with changes in the gut microbiota.