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In Vivo Effects of Einkorn Wheat (<i>Triticum monococcum</i>) Bread on the Intestinal Microbiota, Metabolome, and on the Glycemic and Insulinemic Response in the Pig Model

Barone, Francesca, Laghi, Luca, Gianotti, Andrea, Ventrella, Domenico, Taneyo Saa, Danielle Laure, Bordoni, Alessandra, Forni, Monica, Brigidi, Patrizia, Bacci, Maria Laura, Turroni, Silvia
Nutrients 2018 v.11 no.1
Oscillospira, Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum, alkylresorcinols, animal models, beta-amylase, bioactive compounds, breads, carotenoids, ecosystems, enzyme activity, flour, fructans, gluconeogenesis, glucose, health promotion, hybrids, insulin, intestinal absorption, intestinal microorganisms, intestines, lipoxygenases, metabolome, nutritional intervention, phytosterols, polyploidy, polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, short chain fatty acids, swine, wheat
Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) is characterized by high content of proteins, bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, fructans, tocols, carotenoids, alkylresorcinols, and phytosterols, and lower &alpha;-, &beta;-amylase and lipoxygenase activities compared to polyploid wheat. These features make einkorn flour a good candidate to provide healthier foods. In the present study, we investigated the effects of einkorn bread (EB) on the intestinal physiology and metabolism of the pig model by characterizing the glycemic and insulinemic response, and the microbiota and metabolome profiles. Sixteen commercial hybrid pigs were enrolled in the study; four pigs were used to characterize postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses and twelve pigs underwent a 30-day dietary intervention to assess microbiota and metabolome changes after EB or standard wheat bread (WB) consumption. The postprandial insulin rise after an EB meal was characterized by a lower absolute level, and, as also observed for glucose, by a biphasic shape in contrast to that in response to a WB meal. The consumption of EB led to enrichment in short-chain fatty acid producers (e.g., Blautia, Faecalibacterium, and Oscillospira) in the gut microbiota and to higher metabolic diversity with lower content of succinate, probably related to improved absorption and therefore promoting intestinal gluconeogenesis. The observed changes, at both a compositional and metabolic scale, strongly suggest that EB consumption may support a health-promoting configuration of the intestinal ecosystem.