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Simultaneous Intake of <i>Euglena gracilis</i> and Vegetables Exerts Synergistic Anti-Obesity and Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Modulating the Gut Microbiota in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
- Okouchi, Ran, E, Shuang, Yamamoto, Kazushi, Ota, Toshikuni, Seki, Kentarou, Imai, Mayumi, Ota, Ryuki, Asayama, Yuta, Nakashima, Ayaka, Suzuki, Kengo, Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi
- Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.1
- Euglena gracilis, Hordeum vulgare, ad libitum feeding, adipocytes, animal disease models, anti-inflammatory activity, bacteria, barley, beneficial microorganisms, blood serum, dietary fiber, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, high fat diet, inflammation, intestinal microorganisms, kale, leaves, lipolysis, males, mice, obesity, short chain fatty acids, visceral fat
- We determined whether the anti-obesity effect provided by the consumption of Euglena gracilis (Euglena), which is rich in insoluble dietary fiber, could be enhanced by the co-consumption of vegetables with an abundance of soluble dietary fiber. Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 received a normal diet, group 2 received a high-fat diet, and groups 3, 4, and 5 received high fat diets containing 0.3% paramylon, 1.0% Euglena, or 1.0% Euglena plus 0.3% vegetables (barley leaf, kale, and ashitaba), respectively. Mice were fed ad libitum until 18 weeks of age. Euglena intake significantly reduced visceral fat accumulation in obese mice, and co-consumption of vegetables enhanced this effect. Consumption of Euglena with vegetables reduced adipocyte area, suppressed the expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis, upregulated genes related to adipocyte lipolysis, and suppressed serum markers of inflammation. Notably, we also observed an increase in the fraction of short-chain fatty acid-producing beneficial bacteria, a reduction in harmful bacteria that cause inflammation, and an increase in short-chain fatty acid production. Therefore, the co-consumption of vegetables enhanced the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of Euglena, likely by modulating the gut microbiota composition.