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The Role of Succinate in the Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation
- Connors, Jessica, Dawe, Nick, Van Limbergen, Johan
- Nutrients 2018 v.11 no.1
- animal models, dietary fiber, dysbiosis, fermentation, immune response, immune system, inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, intestines, microbiome, mucosal immunity, patients, tricarboxylic acid cycle
- Succinate is a metabolic intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle within host cells. Succinate is also produced in large amounts during bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Elevated succinate levels within the gut lumen have been reported in association with microbiome disturbances (dysbiosis), as well as in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and animal models of intestinal inflammation. Recent studies indicate that succinate can activate immune cells via its specific surface receptor, succinate receptor 1(SUCNR1), and enhance inflammation. However, the role of succinate in inflammatory processes within the gut mucosal immune system is unclear. This review includes current literature on the association of succinate with intestinal inflammation and the potential role of succinate–SUCNR1 signaling in gut immune functions.