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Impaired Skeletal Muscle Branched-Chain Amino Acids Catabolism Contributes to Their Increased Circulating Levels in a Non-Obese Insulin-Resistant Fructose-Fed Rat Model

Author:
David, Jérémie, Dardevet, Dominique, Mosoni, Laurent, Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle, Polakof, Sergio
Source:
Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.2
ISSN:
2072-6643
Subject:
adipose tissue, animal models, blood, branched chain amino acids, deamination, diet, fructose, insulin resistance, laboratory animals, liver, metabolism, obesity, phenotype, rats, skeletal muscle, starch, transamination
Abstract:
Elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) levels are often observed in obese insulin-resistant (IR) subjects and laboratory animals. A reduced capacity of the adipose tissues (AT) to catabolize BCAA has been proposed as an explanation, but it seems restricted to obesity models of genetically modified or high fat–fed rodents. We aimed to determine if plasma BCAA levels were increased in a model of IR without obesity and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Rats were fed with a standard diet, containing either starch or fructose. BCAA levels, body weight and composition were recorded before and after 5, 12, 30, or 45 days of feeding. Elevated blood BCAA levels were observed in our IR model with unaltered body weight and composition. No changes were observed in the liver or the AT, but instead an impaired capacity of the skeletal muscle to catabolize BCAA was observed, including reduced capacity for transamination and oxidative deamination. Although the elevated blood BCAA levels in the fructose-fed rat seem to be a common feature of the IR phenotype observed in obese subjects and high fat–fed animals, the mechanisms involved in such a metabolic phenomenon are different, likely involving the skeletal muscle BCAA metabolism.
Agid:
6507128