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<i>R. verniciflua</i> and <i>E. ulmoides</i> Extract (ILF-RE) Protects against Chronic CCl<sub>4</sub>-Induced Liver Damage by Enhancing Antioxidation

Lee, Hwa-Young, Lee, Geum-Hwa, Yoon, Young, Chae, Han-Jung
Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.2
alanine transaminase, antioxidant enzymes, aspartate transaminase, body weight, catalase, enzyme activity, fatty-acid synthase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, gene expression, genes, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, hepatoprotective effect, hyperlipidemia, lipid peroxidation, lipogenesis, liver, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, olive oil, oxidative stress, oxidative toxicity, rats, stress response, superoxide dismutase, therapeutics, transcription factors, triacylglycerols
This study aimed to characterize the protective effects of R. verniciflua extract (ILF-R) and E. ulmoides extract (ILF-E), the combination called ILF-RE, against chronic CCl<inf>4</inf>-induced liver oxidative injury in rats, as well as to investigate the mechanism underlying hepatoprotection by ILF-RE against CCl<inf>4</inf>-induced hepatic dysfunction. Chronic hepatic stress was induced via intraperitoneal (IP) administration of a mixture of CCl<inf>4</inf> (0.2 mL/100 g body weight) and olive oil [1:1(v/v)] twice a week for 4 weeks to rats. ILF-RE was administered orally at 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg to rats for 4 weeks. Alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and lipid peroxidation assays were performed, and total triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels were quantified. Furthermore, ER stress and lipogenesis-related gene expression including sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and P-AMPK were assessed. ILF-RE markedly protected against liver damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity including glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase. Furthermore, hepatic dyslipidemia was regulated after ILF-RE administration. Moreover, hepatic lipid accumulation and its associated lipogenic genes, including those encoding SREBP-1 and FAS, were regulated after ILF-RE administration. This was accompanied by regulation of ER stress response signaling, suggesting a mechanism underlying ILF-RE-mediated hepatoprotection against lipid accumulation. The present results indicate that ILF-RE exerts hepatoprotective effects against chronic CCl<inf>4</inf>-induced dysfunction by suppressing hepatic oxidative stress and lipogenesis, suggesting that ILF-RE is a potential preventive/therapeutic natural product in treating hepatoxicity and associated dysfunction.