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The Relevance of Toxic AGEs (TAGE) Cytotoxicity to NASH Pathogenesis: A Mini-Review
- Sakasai-Sakai, Akiko, Takata, Takanobu, Takino, Jun-ichi, Takeuchi, Masayoshi
- Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.2
- advanced glycation end products, blood serum, cell death, cytotoxicity, fatty liver, glycation, glyceraldehyde, hepatocytes, high fructose corn syrup, hyperglycemia, liver, pathogenesis, patients, risk factors
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common feature of chronic liver disease. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of NAFLD, and one of its risk factors is hyperglycemia. The chronic ingestion of excessive amounts of high-fructose corn syrup is associated with an increased prevalence of fatty liver. Under hyperglycemic conditions, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are generated through a non-enzymatic glycation reaction between the ketone or aldehyde groups of sugars and amino groups of proteins. Glyceraldehyde (GA) is a metabolic intermediate of sugars, and GA-derived AGEs (known as toxic AGEs (TAGE)) have been implicated in the development of NASH. TAGE accumulates more in serum or liver tissue in NASH patients than in healthy controls or patients with simple steatosis. Furthermore, the TAGE precursor, GA, causes cell damage through protein dysfunctions by TAGE modifications and induces necrotic-type hepatocyte death. Intracellular TAGE may leak outside of necrotic-type cells. Extracellular TAGE then induce inflammatory or fibrotic responses related to the pathology of NASH in surrounding cells, including hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. This review focuses on the contribution of TAGE to the pathology of NASH, particularly hepatic cell death related to NASH.