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Nanoemulsion and Nanoliposome Based Strategies for Improving Anthocyanin Stability and Bioavailability

Chen, Bing-Huei, Stephen Inbaraj, Baskaran
Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.5
Hibiscus sabdariffa, Plinia cauliflora, acai berries, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, bioavailability, blueberries, cabbage, carrots, cataract, cholesterol, cranberries, diabetes mellitus, elderberries, heat, lecithins, mangosteens, microencapsulation, mulberries, nanoemulsions, nanotechnology, oils, oxidative stability, oxygen, pH, particle size, pistachios, protective effect, surfactants, sweet potatoes, urinary tract diseases, water solubility, zeta potential
Background: Anthocyanins, a flavonoid class of water-soluble pigments, are reported to possess several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. However, anthocyanins are highly susceptible to degradation in high pH, light, heat, and oxygen during processing and storage. Conventional microencapsulation techniques fail to provide stability to anthocyanins under physiological environments mainly because of their large particle size as well as low zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency. Methods: Nanotechnology provides novel strategies for preparing nanoformulations to enhance the physicochemical stability of anthocyanins. Nanoemulsion and nanoliposome are the two most commonly used nanosystems in pharmaceutical and food-related fields. In this review, an overview of various nanoemulsion and nanoliposome systems reported recently for enhancing stability, bioavailability, and bioactivity of anthocyanins is presented. Results: Anthocyanin nanoemulsions with different oil, water, surfactant, and cosurfactant ratios were prepared from extracts of mangosteen peel, purple sweet potato, cranberry, red cabbage, blueberry, jaboticaba peel, and acai berry and evaluated for their antioxidant activity, enhancement of physicochemical stability, topical skin application, and urinary tract infection. Likewise, unilamellar and multilamellar nanoliposomes were prepared using different types and levels of lecithin without or with cholesterol from anthocyanin standards and extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa, mulberry, elderberry, black carrot, and pistachio green hull for the evaluation of physicochemical and oxidative stability, in vitro bioaccessibility, and melanogenic activity, as well as protective effects against diabetes mellitus and cataract. Conclusion: This review provides an insight into the current nanotechnology updates on enhancement of anthocyanin stability and biological activity.