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Increased Intestinal Absorption of Vitamin U in Steamed Graviola Leaf Extract Activates Nicotine Detoxification
- Choi, Eun-Hye, Lee, Seon-Bong, Lee, Da-Yeon, Kim, Goon-Tae, Shim, Soon-Mi, Park, Tae-Sik
- Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.6
- absorption, active ingredients, bioactive compounds, bioavailability, cotinine, human cell lines, intestinal absorption, intestines, kale, leaf extracts, leaves, nicotine, rutin, sensory properties, therapeutics
- Graviola leaves contain much vitamin U (vit U), but their sensory quality is not good enough for them to be developed as food ingredients. Addition of excipient natural ingredients formulated alongside vit U as active ingredients could enhance not only its sensory quality but also its bioavailability. The objectives of this study were to measure the bioaccessibility and intestinal cellular uptake of bioactive components, including rutin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and vit U, from steamed extract of graviola leaves (SGV) and SGV enriched with kale extract (SGK), and to examine how much they can detoxify nicotine in HepG2 cells. The bioaccessibility of vit U from SGV and SGK was 82.40% and 68.03%, respectively. The cellular uptake of vit U in SGK by Caco-2 cells was higher than that in SGV. Cotinine content converted from nicotine in HepG2 cells for 120 min was 0.22 and 0.25 μg/mg protein in 50 μg/mL of SGV and SGK, respectively, which were 2.86 and 3.57 times higher than the no-treatment control. SGK treatment of HepG2 cells upregulated CYP2A6 three times as much as did that of SGV. Our results suggest that graviola leaf extract enriched with excipient ingredients such as kale could improve vit U absorption and provide a natural therapy for detoxifying nicotine.