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High-Dose Astaxanthin Supplementation Suppresses Antioxidant Enzyme Activity during Moderate-Intensity Swimming Training in Mice
- Zhou, Yingsong, Baker, Julien S, Chen, Xiaoping, Wang, Yajun, Chen, Haimin, Davison, Gareth W, Yan, Xiaojun
- Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.6
- antioxidant enzymes, astaxanthin, catalase, creatine kinase, enzyme activity, exercise, gene expression regulation, glutathione peroxidase, health promotion, heart, males, malondialdehyde, messenger RNA, mice, muscles, nitrogen, oxygen, superoxide dismutase, swimming
- Exercise-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are increasingly considered as beneficial health promotion. Astaxanthin (ASX) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant suitable for human ingestion. We investigated whether ASX administration suppressed antioxidant enzyme activity in moderate-intensity exercise. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (n = 8/group) were treated with ASX (5, 15, and 30 mg/kg BW) combined with 45 min/day moderate-intensity swimming training for four weeks. Results showed that the mice administrated with 15 and 30 mg/kg of ASX decreased glutathione peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, and creatine kinase levels in plasma or muscle, compared with the swimming control group. Beyond that, these two (15 and 30 mg/kg BW) dosages of ASX downregulated gastrocnemius muscle erythroid 2p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Meanwhile, mRNA of Nrf2 and Nrf2-dependent enzymes in mice heart were also downregulated in the ASX-treated groups. However, the mice treated with 15 or 30 mg/kg ASX had increased constitutive nitric oxidase synthase and superoxide dismutase activity, compared with the swimming and sedentary control groups. Our findings indicate that high-dose administration of astaxanthin can blunt antioxidant enzyme activity and downregulate transcription of Nrf2 and Nrf2-dependent enzymes along with attenuating plasma and muscle MDA.