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High-Dose Astaxanthin Supplementation Suppresses Antioxidant Enzyme Activity during Moderate-Intensity Swimming Training in Mice

Zhou, Yingsong, Baker, Julien S, Chen, Xiaoping, Wang, Yajun, Chen, Haimin, Davison, Gareth W, Yan, Xiaojun
Nutrients 2019 v.11 no.6
antioxidant enzymes, astaxanthin, catalase, creatine kinase, enzyme activity, exercise, gene expression regulation, glutathione peroxidase, health promotion, heart, males, malondialdehyde, messenger RNA, mice, muscles, nitrogen, oxygen, superoxide dismutase, swimming
Exercise-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are increasingly considered as beneficial health promotion. Astaxanthin (ASX) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant suitable for human ingestion. We investigated whether ASX administration suppressed antioxidant enzyme activity in moderate-intensity exercise. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (n = 8/group) were treated with ASX (5, 15, and 30 mg/kg BW) combined with 45 min/day moderate-intensity swimming training for four weeks. Results showed that the mice administrated with 15 and 30 mg/kg of ASX decreased glutathione peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, and creatine kinase levels in plasma or muscle, compared with the swimming control group. Beyond that, these two (15 and 30 mg/kg BW) dosages of ASX downregulated gastrocnemius muscle erythroid 2p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Meanwhile, mRNA of Nrf2 and Nrf2-dependent enzymes in mice heart were also downregulated in the ASX-treated groups. However, the mice treated with 15 or 30 mg/kg ASX had increased constitutive nitric oxidase synthase and superoxide dismutase activity, compared with the swimming and sedentary control groups. Our findings indicate that high-dose administration of astaxanthin can blunt antioxidant enzyme activity and downregulate transcription of Nrf2 and Nrf2-dependent enzymes along with attenuating plasma and muscle MDA.