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Nutrigenetics and Metabolic Disease: Current Status and Implications for Personalised Nutrition
- Phillips, Catherine M.
- Nutrients 2013 v.5 no.1 pp. 32-57
- adiposity, biochemical pathways, diet, environmental factors, gene expression, genetic variation, health effects assessments, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, nutrients, nutrigenomics, nutrition-genotype interaction, obesity, pathogenesis, phenotype, public health, sedentary lifestyle
- Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and sedentary behavior, promote the progression and pathogenesis of these polygenic diet-related diseases. Their current prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. Nutrition is probably the most important environmental factor that modulates expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and the variety of phenotypes associated with obesity, the MetS and T2DM. Furthermore, the health effects of nutrients may be modulated by genetic variants. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics require an understanding of nutrition, genetics, biochemistry and a range of “omic” technologies to investigate the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors relevant to metabolic health and disease. These rapidly developing fields of nutritional science hold much promise in improving nutrition for optimal personal and public health. This review presents the current state of the art in nutrigenetic research illustrating the significance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of metabolic disease.