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Hepatic cholesterol accumulation ascribed to the activation of ileum Fxr-Fgf15 pathway inhibiting hepatic Cyp7a1 in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats

Duan, Yingting, Zhang, Fan, Yuan, Wenzhen, Wei, Yuhui, Wei, Mengmeng, Zhou, Yan, Yang, Yuquan, Chang, Yae, Wu, Xinan
Life sciences 2019 pp. 116638
absorption, bile acids, cholesterol, cholesterol metabolism, enterocytes, enzymes, gene expression, gene expression regulation, high fat diet, homeostasis, ileum, ligands, liver, messenger RNA, metabolic diseases, obesity, patients, rats, receptors, transcription (genetics), transporters
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity resulting in cholesterol accumulation is one of the common pathogenic factors for lipids metabolic disorders. However, the potential mechanisms about cholesterol accumulation during obesity are still not clearly identified. Bile acids (BAs) as the natural ligands of farnesoid x receptor (Fxr) are demonstrated that can regulate the relevant enzymes and transporters at transcriptional level to determine the cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we explored the underlying mechanisms of hepatic cholesterol accumulation in HFD-induced obesity rats via the BAs-Fxr-enzymes/transporters signaling pathways.BAs and cholesterol levels as well as mRNA expressions of enzymes, transporters and nuclear receptors involving in cholesterol homeostasis in liver and ileum tissue were evaluated in 4-week HFD-induced obesity rats.HFD promoted BAs intestine passive absorption to increase the concentrations of BAs especially the chenodeoxycholic acids (CDCAs) in ileum of HFD-induced obesity rats. The increased CDCAs concentrations activated Fxr-Fgf15 pathway in ileum to result in the mRNA expression of Cyp7a1 in liver down-regulation, which inhibited cholesterol metabolizing into primary BAs to contribute to the cholesterol level increase in liver tissue in HFD-induced obesity rats.The hepatic cholesterol accumulation should be ascribed to the activation of ileum Fxr-Fgf15 pathway by the increased BAs passive absorption into ileal enterocytes under the condition of rats fed with HFD, which inhibited hepatic Cyp7a1 gene transcription to reduce metabolic elimination of cholesterol. Moreover, these findings are expected to provide a cue for the treatment of cholesterol metabolism disorders in obesity patient.